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    T12A鋼制銼刀的熱處理工藝設計

    發布日期:[2018-10-25]    共閱[3448]次
        銼刀是一種多刃的切削工具,主要用于銼削硬度為18~58HRC范圍
    內的金屬材料。工作中承受強烈磨損和彎曲變形以及一定的沖
    擊。因此,要求銼刀具有較好耐磨性的同時,還需要具有一定的
    抗彎強度和韌性。
    File is a multi-edged cutting tool, mainly used to file
    hardness of 18 ~ 58 HRC range of metal materials. The
    work is subjected to strong wear and bending deformation
    and certain impact. Therefore, it is required that the
    file tools have better wear resistance, but also a
    certain flexural strength and toughness. (1)銼刀的失效分
    析 同種材料制作的優質銼刀使用過程的失效形式是磨損;質量不
    佳的銼刀往往是早期斷齒和崩刃。失效分析表明,兩者僅僅是組
    織結構的差異,即碳化物形態和基體組織形態不同。
    (1) Failure Analysis of Files The failure mode of high-
    quality files made of the same material is wear and tear,
    and the poor-quality files are often early broken teeth
    and broken edges. Failure analysis shows that the two are
    only differences in microstructure, i. e. carbide
    morphology and matrix morphology.

    (2)熱處理工藝性分析 由于T12A鋼是過共析鋼,脆性較大。常規
    熱處理一般是以獲得細小碳化物為目的,改善其韌性并獲得強韌
    化效果。然而,對銼刀而言要得到良好的銼削性能,認為在組織
    中保持一定數量的大顆粒碳化物是很有效的方法。同時,為了保
    持良好的韌性,熱處理后基體應是低碳馬氏體組織并將碳化物棱
    角鈍化。
    (2) heat treatment process analysis, because T12A steel
    is hypereutectoid steel, brittleness is larger.
    Conventional heat treatment is usually to obtain fine
    carbides for the purpose of improving its toughness and
    toughening effect. However, in order to obtain good file
    performance, it is considered that it is an effective
    method to keep a certain amount of large particles of
    carbide in the microstructure. At the same time, in order
    to maintain good toughness, the matrix after heat
    treatment should be low carbon martensite structure and
    carbide edge passivation.

    (3)銼刀的熱處理工藝設計
    (3) heat treatment process design for file

    1)預備熱處理:采用圖5-1所示的兩段等溫球化退火工藝,旨在改
    變銼刀的原始組織狀態。首先加熱到比Accm(820℃)稍高的
    840~850℃,經適當保溫,使組織中僅保留為數不多的碳化物,且
    奧氏體組織不均勻。然后,進入第一階段球化退火,組織中不均
    勻奧氏體的高濃度碳偏析區和未溶碳化物成為大顆粒碳化物長大
    的核心。同時,在周邊組織中碳濃度降低,為淬火后獲得低碳馬
    氏體做好組織準備。在進入第二階段球化退火時,即在Ac1以下等
    溫,碳化物進一步擴散、析出、聚集球化,使大顆粒碳化物進一
    步長大,并新生許多彌散分布的小顆粒碳化物。如此,一定數量
    的大顆粒碳化物和大量的珠光體為最終熱處理奠定了良好基礎。
    1) Pre-heat treatment: The two-stage isothermal
    spheroidizing annealing process shown in Fig. 5-1 was
    used to change the original microstructure of the file.
    Firstly, it is heated to 840 ~ 850 C higher than Accm
    (820 C). After proper heat preservation, only a few
    carbides are retained in the microstructure, and the
    austenite structure is inhomogeneous. Then, in the first
    stage of spheroidizing annealing, the high concentration
    carbon segregation zone and the undissolved carbide of
    the inhomogeneous austenite become the core of the growth
    of large carbide particles. At the same time, the carbon
    concentration in the surrounding tissues is reduced, so
    as to prepare for low carbon martensite after quenching.
    In the second stage of spheroidizing annealing, that is,
    under the isothermal temperature of Ac1, carbides further
    diffuse, precipitate, aggregate and spheroidize, so that
    large particles of carbides grow further, and many small
    particles of dispersed carbides are generated. Thus, a
    certain amount of large particle carbide and a large
    number of pearlite lay a good foundation for the final
    heat treatment.

    2)最終熱處理:采用快速加熱短時保溫的熱處理工藝。由于實際
    刃部加熱溫度較低,加熱時間較短,碳化物大小不均,溶解速度
    不同,故得到成分極不均的奧氏體和一定數量的碳化物,淬火后
    組織性能良好。
    2) final heat treatment: heat treatment process with
    quick heating and short time insulation. Due to the lower
    heating temperature, shorter heating time, uneven size of
    carbide and different dissolution rate, a certain amount
    of carbide and austenite with extremely uneven
    composition are obtained, and the microstructure and
    properties are good after quenching.

    (4)處理結果 組織為一定數量的低碳馬氏體+較多的隱針馬氏體
    +棱角鈍化且大小不均碳化物;斷口形貌為大量淺韌窩和撕裂棱;
    銼刀使用壽命達到50萬次的較高水平。
    (4) The results show that the microstructure is low-
    carbon martensite + more crypto-acicular martensite +
    edge passivation and uneven size carbide; the fracture
    morphology is a large number of shallow dimples and
    tearing edges; the service life of the file reaches a
    high level of 500,000 times.

     

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